Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 7 State and Society in Medieval India Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Important Questions, Notes.
Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 7 State and Society in Medieval India
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science State and Society in Medieval India Text Book Back Questions and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer:
_______ was the second stronghold of Ala-ud-din Khalji’s expanding Kingdom.
The Deccan Sultanates were conquered by _______
(a) Ala-ud-din Khilji
(b) Ala-ud-in Bhaman- shah
(d) Malik Kafur
The establishment of ______ empire changed the administrative and institutional structure of south India.
Krishnadeva Raya was a contemporary of ____________
II. Fill in the blanks:
- ______ were European who arrived on the west coast of India.
- The combined forces of the five Deccan Sultanates defeated Vijayanagar army in 1565 A.D (C.E) at the battle of ______.
- Vijayanagara evolved as a _______
- The tempo of urbanization incresed during ______ period.
- _______ was the enterprising period in the history of Tamilnadu
- Militaristic state
- The Chola period
III. Find out the correct statement
(i) The establishment of the Vijayanagar Kingdom witnessed the most momentous development in the history of South India.
(ii) The Saluva dynasty ruled for a longer period.
(iii) The rulers of Vijayanagar a had smooth relations with the Bahmani Sultanate.
(iv) Rajput kingdoms attracted migrants from Persia and Arabia.
(i) is correct
(i) The Nayak Kingdom came up in Senji.
(ii) The appointment of Telugu Nayaks resulted in the migration of Telugu-speaking people from Madurai.
(iii) Mughal Empire started declining from the time of Jahangir.
(iv) The Europeans came to India in search of slaves.
(i) is correct
(i) Mythical geneologies were collected by Col. Mackenzie.
(ii) Indigo was the most important beverage crop in India.
(iii) Mahmud Gawan was the minister in Alauddin Khalji’s kingdom.
(iv) The Portuguese built their first fort in Goa.
(i) is correct
Assertion (A): India was an integral part of maritime trade, extending from China in the east to Africa in the west.
Reason (R): Geographical location of India in the middle of Indian Ocean.
(a) (i) A is correct; R explains about A
(b) (ii) A is wrong; R is correct .
(c) (iii) A and R are wrong
(d) (iv) A is correct; R does not explains about A.
(a) (i) A is correct; R explains about A
(i) Gold images of great beauty and artistry were made by Cholas.
(ii) The best example for Chola architecture is Siva as Nataraja performing the cosmic dance.
(a) (i) is correct (ii) is wrong
(b) Both (i) and (ii) is correct
(c) Both (i) and (ii) are wrong
(d) (i) is wrong, (ii) is correct
(d) (i) is wrong, (ii) is correct
IV. Match the following;
- Portuguese – (i) Bengal
- Tansen – (ii) Kottam
- Sericulture – (iii) Court of Akbar
- Angkorwat – (iv) Goa
- District – (v) Cambodia
- – (iv)
- – (iii)
- – (i)
- – (v)
- – (ii)
V. Answer the following briefly:
Write about the military expeditions of Malik Kafur.
Alauddin Khalji’s slave and commander, Malik Kafur, was sent on military expeditions further south in the first decade of the 1300s A.D. (C.E.).
Who founded the Vijayanagar Kingdom? Mention the dynasties that ruled over the kingdom.
- Vijayanagar kingdom was established by Harihara and Bukka, two brothers.
- They were the first rulers of the Sangama dynasty.
- Sangama dynasty was followed by the Saluva dynasty.
- The Tuluva dynasty ruled under Krishnadeva Raya.
Mention the two natural advantages that India had in cotton weaving.
India had two natural advantages in cotton weaving. The first was that cotton grew in almost all parts of India, so that the basic raw material was easily available. Second, the technology of producing a permanent colour on cotton using vegetable dyes was known from very early times in India.
What were the factors which facilitated urbanization?
- The cities and towns fulfilled diverse and overlapping roles in the economy.
- The large cities were centres of manufacturing and marketing, banking and financial services.
- They were usually located at the intersection of an extensive network of roads.
- The roads connected them to other parts of the country.
- Smaller towns were marketing centres in local trade connecting the immediate rural hinterland.
- Cities also served as political and administrative centres.
- Major pilgrimage centres like Varanasi also grew into cities, because of the regular inflow of pilgrims.
- All these factors together contributed to urbanization.
What is sericulture?
- Silk production by breeding the mulberry silkworm is Sericulture.
- Sericulture was introduced in the 14th and 15th centuries.
- Bengal had become one of the largest silk-producing regions in the world.
VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.
The arrival of the Europeans
(a) Who controlled the spice trade from India?
What enabled the Portuguese to have control over maritime trade over the entire region?
(c) How were the trading activities of the Europeans carried on in India?
(d) Mention the enclaves of the Dutch, the English, the French and the Danes in India.
(a) The spice trade from India was controlled by Muslims up to Alexandria.
(b) Because of their naval superiority, the Portuguese were able to conquer many ports from east Africa up to Malacca, and could effectively control the maritime trade.
(c) The trade activity of the Emperor were carried on through respective East India
(d) The Dutch were in Pulicat (apd later Nagapatnam), the English in Madras, the French in Pondicherry and the Danes in Tarangampadi.
VII. Answer the following in detail:
Discuss the political changes during 1526-1707 A.D. (C.E.),
- The Mughal empire was founded by Babur in 1526 A.D. (C.E.) after he defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat.
- The first six Mughal emperors are referred to as the ‘Great Mughals’
- Aurangzeb was the last of the great Mughals.
- Akbar consolidated the Mughal empire through conquests and through a policy of conciliation with the Religious based kingdoms of Rajasthan.
- The Mughal empire though began to disintegrate after Aurangzeb, continued to exist nominally till 1857 A.D. (C.E.)
- A new power centre rose in Maharashtra in the seventeenth century, and the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji seriously undermined the authority of the Mughals in western India.
- At its height, the empire stretched over most of the Indian sub-continent.
- Only the south-western region of Kerala and southern Tamilnadu were not directly under the Mughal rule.
Explain the commercial developments in Medieval India
- The large manufacturing sector essentially produced goods for exchange.
- India had an extensive network of trade for marketing the goods.
- At the next level, the producer was de-linked from marketing, the trade was undertaken by merchant intermediaries.
- Big cities were usually major commercial centres with bazzars and shops.
- Major parts were the nodal points in international, maritime trade.
- Maritime trade across the Indian ocean, extending from China in the East to Africa in the West had flourished for many centuries.
- Merchants operated at different levels.
- Trade on a large scale could function only with the availability of financial and banking services.
- The European trading companies realized that they could not function in India without the services of the rich and influential merchants. They entered into contracts.
- The Indian merchants were under contract to the Europeans to supply textiles and other goods.
- Political disturbances disrupted economic activity.
“Chola Period was an enterprising period In the history of Tamil Nadu” – Elucidate.
- The Chola dynasty was one of the largest ruling dynasties in the history of South India,
- The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri river.
- Under Rajaraja Chola I and his successor Rajendra Chola I, Rajadhi Raja Chola, Veera Rajendra Chola, and Kulottunga Chola I the dynasty became a military, economic, and cultural power in South Asia and Southeast Asia.
- According to Tamil tradition, the Chola country comprised the region that includes the modem day namely Tiruchirapalli, Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Ariyalur, Perembalour, Pudukottai, and Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu.
- After Rajendra Chola capital got shifted to Gangai Konda Chola Puram.
- In the age of the Cholas, the whole of south India was for the first time brought under a single government.
- The Chola dynasty had a professional military.
- Land revenue and trade tax were the main sources of income.
- In the society of the Cholas, the guild was one of the most significant institutions in South India.
- They excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and South East Asia.
- Most of the canals of Kaveri belong to this period.
- Under the Cholas, the Tamil country reached new heights of excellence in art, religion, and literature.
- Architectural Historian James Fergusson says that the Chola artists conceived like giants and finished like jewellers. Therefore, we can say that the Chola period was an enterprising period in the history of Tamilnadu.
On the outline map of India mark the important places of medieval India.
Arrange a debate in the class on the advantages and disadvantages of urbanization.
- Economic Improvement – The production in various industrial sectors like cement, iron and steel, textile, fertilizers computing etc. is helping in the economic growth of the country. Export increases and in turn Foreign Exchange increases.
- Educational facilities – More schools, colleges, and universities are established in cities to train and develop human resources. Varieties of educational choices are available offering students a wide choice for their future careers.
- Development in tourist industries: People from foreign countries are towns having better transport facilities. Tourism is a good source of foreign currency for a country
- Social integration – People of many castes, groups, and religions live and work together in cities, which creates better understanding and harmony and helps breakdown social and cultural barriers.
- Improvement in Science, Culture etc. Urban places are the meeting point of all good cultures of various localities. Science and technology developments take place in urban places improving society SS a whole.
- Living conditions – Cities are often more efficient than in rural areas. Less effort is needed to supply basic amenities such as fresh water and electricity. Research and recycling programs are possible only in cities. In most cities, flats are prevalent In flats many people can be accommodated within a small land area.
Disadvantages of Urbanization:
- Destruction of Natural Habitats of Flora and Fauna- In the making of an urban area, a lot of forest areas are destroyed which otherwise would have been natural habitats to many birds and animals.
- Crime: Due to urbanization many people benefit but not all get the opportunities which result in those people doing illegal things like robbery, kidnapping, murder, and so on and thus one can say that urbanization is the party behind the increasing crime rates in big cities.
- Slums: The rapid inflows of rural population to urban places give rise to the housing problem and thus slums are developed in these places.
- Poor living conditions – Crowding and lack of sanitation. This often contributes to the outbreak of diseases. Utilities such as water, electricity, and sewage disposal are also lacking in such areas.
- Unemployment-Since the number of people aspiring for jobs is more than jobs available, unemployment is a natural outcome of the situation. Unemployment and poverty force people to engage in anti-social activities.
- Air pollution-Factories and automobiles are the most visible symbols of urbanization. Due to emissions of harmful gases and smoke from factories and vehicles, air pollution results. The high amount of suspended particles in air, particularly in cities, contribute to allergies and respiratory problems. It will create a health hazard.
- Shortage of workers: The decrease in rural population affects agricultural production due to the shortage of workers in rural areas.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science State and Society in Medieval India Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer:
Vascodagama reached the west-coast of India in ____________
Arab Muslim merchants had been trading in the ports of the west coast, especially ____________
(a) Tamil Nadu
In the south, a Sultanate was established in ____________
Sailendra Kingdom existed in ____________
The Kakatiyas ruled from ____________
Vijayanagara was founded on the banks of the river ____________
Nayakas were _________ officers
The Mughal empire was founded by _______
‘Navakas’ were officers ____________
When the Portuguese arrived in Kerala took roots.
II. Find out the correct statement
(i) Darasuram Temple was built by the Pandya rulers.
(ii) Under the Mughals, a large volume of literature was produced, especially in Persian and Urdu.
(iii) Tansen lived in the court of Krishnadeva Raya.
(iv) Telugu literature flourished under royal support.
(ii) and (iv) are correct
(i) The state was indifferent to water resources.
(ii) Lift irrigation was unknown to Indians.
(iii) Cholas built a network of canals.
(iv) Muhammad bin Tughlaq built the biggest network of canals in the Delhi area.
(iii) is correct
(i) Sugarcane was an important food crop.
(ii) The two new crops introduced by the Europeans in India were Wheat and Rice.
(iii) Rural population were known to abandon a settlement and move to a new location.
(iv) The peasants lived only at a very basic level of subsistence.
(iii) and (iv) are correct
Assertion (A): Specialized production by skilled craftsmen was required for an external market.
Reason (R): Craftsmen worked in larger manufacturing units called Karkhanas.
(a) A is correct; R explains about A
(b) A is wrong; R is correct
(c) A and R are wrong
(d) A is correct; R does not explain about A
(a) A is correct; A explains about A
Statement (i): Non-agricultural production refers to both processed agricultural products and craft production.
Statement (ii): Processed agricultural products are maize, tobacco, Papaya, pineapple,
(a) (i) is correct (ii) is wrong
(b) (i) and (ii) are wrong
(c) (i) and (ii) are correct
(d) (i) is wrong, (ii) is correct
(a) (i) is correct (ii) wrong
III. Fill in the blanks:
- Military campaigns to the South were undertaken by ___________
- The great statesman and loyal minister under the Bahmani Kingdom was ___________
- Rajendra’s grandson was ___________
- Magnificent Hindu temples are found at in ___________ Combodia
- The Hoysala kingdom shifted its capital to ___________
- The dynasty ruled Vijayanagar ___________ for nearly one and a half centuries.
- The Mughal empire started to disintegrate after ___________
- The spice trade from India was controlled by Muslims up to ___________
- The Portuguese were able to conquer many ports from east Africa up to ___________
- The Cholas introduced innovations-in ___________ administration.
- Al beruni, Ibn Batuta, and Ferishta are among the best known of the Muslim ___________
- Under Vijayanagar Empire ___________ supplied the manpower for the army.
- The appointment of ___________ resulted in the migration of Telugu-speaking people from the north. rulers.
- After Aurangabad, the viceroys of many Mughal provinces became ___________ ruler.
- Valanki and Idankai were the division of the ___________ System
- Robert de nobil was a ___________
- The Mughal ___________ were single Works to be kept in albums.
- The intricately carved lofty towers or gopurams at the entrances to temples were contributed by the _____
- Venkatamakhi codified the ___________
- Textile is a products ___________
- Alauddin Khalji
- Mahmud Gawan
- Kulottunga I
- Angkor Wat
- Telugu Nayakas
- Vijayanagar rulers
- Ragas of Carnatic music
- Processed agricultural
IV. Match the following
(a) Govindha Dikshidar – (i) Guild
(b) Gujarati merchants – (ii) Muslin
(c) Manigramam – (iii) Major Port
(d) Masulipatnam – (iv) Venkatamakhi
(e) Indian Cloth – (v) the Persian Gulf
(a) – iv
(b) – v
(c) – i
(d) – iii
(e) – ii
V. Answer all questions given under each heading
North India – The Advent of Islam
(a) Who established Muslim rule in Delhi?
Muslim rule was established in Delhi at the end of the 12th century by Muhammad Ghori.
(b) When was the impact of Muslim rule felt?
The impact of Muslim rule was felt during the reign of Alauddin Khalji.
(c) Who was Alauddin Khalji’s commander?
Alauddin Khalji’s slave and the commander were Malik Kafur.
(d) Where was a Sultanate established in the South?
A Sultanate was established in Madurai.
(a) Who set up the Bahmani Sultanate?
Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah set up the Bahmani Sultanate in 1347 A.D.
(b) Who was Mahmud Gawan?
Mahmud Gawan was a great statesman and loyal minister of the Bahmani kingdom
(c) Name the five Sultanates in the Deccan.
Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmednagar, Berar, and Bidar were the five Sultanates in the Deccan.
(d) Who conquered them?
The Deccan Sultanates were conquered by Aurangzeb in the 1660s and the entire region, as far south as Madras (Chennai) became a part of the Mughal empire.
The Chola Empire in the South
(a) By whom was territorial expansion done under Cholas?
The territorial expansion of the Chola empire began under Rajaraja I.
(b) Where did Rajendra I send naval expeditions?
Rajendra I sent naval expeditions against the Sailendra Kingdom of Sri Vijaya (in Indonesia), Kadaram (Kedah), and Ceylon.
(c) With whom did the Cholas have maritime trade?
Maritime trade with south-east Asia and China expanded greatly during the Chola period.
(d) How was the empire further consolidated?
The empire was further consolidated through marriage with the eastern Chalukyas under Rajendra’s grandson Kulottunga I, and extended up to the border of Orissa.
(a) Who established the Vijayanagar Kingdom?
The Vijayanagar kingdom was established by Harihara and Bukka, two brothers.
(b) Where did they have their capital?
They founded a new capital city on the southern banks of Tungabhadra which they named Vijayanagara (city of victory).
(c) Which dynasty followed the Sangama dynasty?
Saluva dynasty followed the Sangama dynasty.
(d) Mention the ablest ruler of the Tuluva dynasty?
The ablest ruler of the Tuluva dynasty was Krishnadeva Raya.
(a) Name the Great Mughals.
The Great Mughals were Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb.
(b) Who consolidated the Mughal’s empire?
Akbar consolidated the Mughal empire through conquests and through a policy of conciliation with the religious-based kingdoms of Rajasthan.
(c) Mention the new power which rose in Maharashtra at this time.
A new power centre rose in Maharashtra in the seventeenth century, and the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji fought against the Mughals.
(d) Which places were not directly under the Mughal rule in the south?
Only the south-western region of Kerala and southern Tamilnadu were not directly under the Mughal rule.
Impact on Policy
(a) What was the basic unit of local administration under the Cholas?
The basic unit of local administration was the village (ur), followed by the sub-region (Nadu) and district (kottam) under the Cholas.
(b) who did the Muslim kingdoms in Delhi attract?
Muslim kingdoms in Delhi, as well as in the Deccan, also attracted migrants from Persia and Arabia who moved to India.
(c) Mention the three major Nayaka Kingdoms?
The three major Nayaka kingdoms were in Madurai, Thanjavur and Gingee existed between 1500 AD and 1550 A.D.
(d) What was culminated by the arrival of the Europeans in India?
The arrival of the Europeans in India ultimately culminated in the establishment of colonial rule in India under the British.
Impact on Culture
(a) Give one example of the monumental architecture of the Cholas.
The monumental architecture of the Cholas is visible in the great temple of Thanjavur, Gangai- Konda-Chola Puram, and Darasuram, to name only a few.
(b) Mention a few monuments left behind by the Mughals?
The MughalsTeft behind numerous monuments, in addition to constructing entire cities like Shahjahanabad (Delhi) and Fatehpur Sikri, gardens, mosques, and forts.
(c) What was added by the Vijayanagar kingdom in temple construction?
The intricately carved lofty towers or gopurams at the entrance to temples were all added during the Vijayanagar period.
(d) Mention the new style of Tamil literature which emerged during the Vijayanagar Kingdom.
A new style of Tamil literature called Prabandham emerged during this period.
(a) What was the source of water for agriculture?
Both in the north and the south, agriculture depended heavily on irrigation. Canals and wells added to the water sources in addition to rainfall and rivers.
(b) Who created the biggest network of canals in the 14th century?
Firuzshah Tughluq created the biggest network of canals in the fourteenth century in the Delhi area.
(c) What was used in the north to lift water from wells?
Persian wheel was used for lifting water from wells in the north
(d) Who created a network of canals in the south of India?
The Cholas had created a network of canals for irrigation connecting the tributaries of Kaveri.
Crops in India
(a) What were the food grains produced in India?
A variety of food grains like wheat, rice, and millets were produced apart from lentils and oilseeds.
(b) Name the commercial crops.
The commercial crops grown were sugarcane, cotton, and indigo.
(c) Mention the two new crops introduced by the Europeans in India.
Maize and tobacco were introduced by the Europeans.
(d) What is Sericulture?
Sericulture means silk production by breeding the mulberry silkworm.
(a) Mention the Major ports in the Asiatic trade in the seventeenth century.
In the seventeenth century, Surat in Gujarat, Masulipatnam in the Golkonda kingdom, Chittagong in Bengal, Pulicat (Pazhaverkadu) and Nagapatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and Calicut in Kerala were all major ports in Asiatic trade.
(b) What were the major export of India?
The major exports of India were textiles, pepper, precious and semi-precious gems – especially diamonds.
(c) What was imported from China?
Silk, Chinese ceramics, gold, spices, aromatic woods and camphor were major imports from China to India.
(d) What were used to transfer money from one city to another?
Bankers and money changers operated in all the big cities, and bills of exchange or hundis (similar to cheques or bank drafts) were used to transfer money from one city to another.
VI. Answer the following briefly:
When was the Mughal rule consolidated in India?
- The consolidation of Muslim rule under the Mughals in the north, beginning in 1526 A.D. (C.E.) with the defeat of the Ibrahim Lodi by Babur.
- At its height, the Mughal empire stretched from Kabul to Gujarat to Bengal, from Kashmir to south India.
Write a note on Alauddin Khalji.
- The impact of Muslim rule was felt during the reign of Alauddin Khalji.
- He sent military campaigns to the south under his commander Malik Kafur.
- The primary objective was to plunder the wealth, rather than to expand his territory.
- Devagiri (near Aurangabad) was captured by Alauddin Khalji. He renamed it Daulatabad.
- It was the second stronghold of his growing kingdom.
“Gangaiyum Kadaramum konda Chelan”. Who was he?
- Rajendra I earned the title “the Chola who had conquered the Ganga and Kadaram”.
- He sent naval expeditions against the Sailendra Kingdom of Sri Vijaya (in Indonesia), Kadaram (Kedah) and Ceylon.
- So he was given the title Gangaiyum Kadaramum konda Cholan.
Mention the several power centres which came up after the full of the Chola empire.
- Further to the South, the Pandya kings again sought to regain the glory they had lost under the Cholas.
- Many brilliant Pandya kings like Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan ruled at the end of the 13th, century.
- Further to the north was the Hoysala kingdom, with its capital at Belur.
- The Kakatiyas ruled from Warangal (Telangana) while the Yadavas ruled in Devagiri.
- These states did not exist in peaceful cooperation, and the region was beset by many internal wars and conflicts.
Explain the battle of Talikota.
- The rulers of Vijayanagar were almost continuously at war with the Bahmani sultanate as well as with the Religous based kingdoms of Kondavidu and Orissa.
- Finally, the combined forces of the five Deccani Sultanates defeated Vijayanagar in 1565 A.D. at the Battle of Talikota.
- The empire finally withered away in the middle of the seventeenth century.
Write about the Muslim historians.
- A notable development was the profusion of contemporary historical accounts of the Muslim Sultanates by Arab and Persian historians.
- Al-beruni, Ibn Batuta, and Ferishta are among the best known Muslim historians.
- These historians provide valuable information about the rulers and events of the medieval period.
- They also provide an alternate historical point of view of Islamic rule in India as seen through the eyes of Muslim writers.
How did Vijayanagar manage to get resources for its militaristic state?
- This empire needed two kinds of resources to feed its military establishment – revenue and men.
- This was achieved through re-organizing the administration of the conquered territories, especially in the Tamil region.
- Military officers, known as ‘nayakas’, were appointed as chiefs of various localities in Tamilnadu.
- It received land grants from the emperor.
- There were also lesser military leaders known as palayakkarar who essentially supplied the manpower for the army.
How did Akbar consolidate the Mughal empire?
- He reversed the policy of discriminatory measures against the Hindus.
- He employed Hindu administrators like Todar Mai in key positions of authority.
- These initiatives earned the emperor the loyalty and trust of the majority community.
- The entire region was brought under a uniform administrative structure.
- Political stability increased the economy and trade.
What led to a significant expansion of textile production in India?
- The Europeans came to India primarily in search of spices.
- But soon there was an explosion in the demand for Indian textiles in the European markets, often referred to as the ‘Indian craze’.
- This led to a significant expansion of textile production in India.
Explain the terms Valankai and Idankai?
- In South India, groups of castes were vertically divided into the right (valankai) and left hand (idankai) castes.
- Each group included castes at different levels in the caste hierarchy, like merchants, land-owning castes and professional castes.
- This division was found throughout south India, but we have more comprehensive information on the right and left-hand castes in the Tamil region.
Who were Jesuit missionaries?
- Jesuit missionaries were active especially among the fishing communities on the Pandyan coast.
- The best known among the Jesuit missionaries was St Francis Xavier who was instrumental in making the fishing community take to Christianity in the Tuticorin region.
- Another notable Jesuit was Roberto de Nobili, a scholar, who was based in Madurai.
How was the economic condition of the peasantry during the Medieval period of India?
- The economic condition of the bulk of the peasantry was poor.
- They generally lived only at a very basic level of subsistence.
- Poor peasants sold themselves and their families into slavery.
- The shipping lists of the Dutch East India Company regularly mention men and women slaves who were transported to the spice-producing islands of Indonesia to work on the plantations.
What was Karkhanas?
- Larger manufacturing units, employing many craftsmen, are called Karkhanas.
- Karkhanas were up under Mughal State.
Why did the European trading companies enter into contracts with the Indian merchant?
- The European trading companies realized that they could not function in India without the services of the rich and influential merchants.
- So they entered into contracts with them to supply the goods that they wanted and also to lift the imports which they brought in from Europe.
In South India, especially the Tamil regions, urbanization went hand in hand with temples how?
- Temples were large economic enterprises requiring a variety of goods and services to function.
- They needed and employed a large number of people to man the religious services, the kitchens and for other work.
- As a result, temple towns became marketing centres.
- The pace of urbanization increased during the Vijayanagar period when there was a great increase in the construction of temples across Tamilnadu.
Mention the Holy Roman Empire.
- The newly established Holy Roman Empire represented Christianity and Christendom and, hence, it was designated holy.
- The emperor was supposed to be a representative of God on earth like the Pope. The emperor dealt with political matters, while the Pope dealt with the spiritual.
- Charlemagne, the king of Franks was the first Holy Roman Emperor.
- He was a contemporary of Pallava king Nandivarman II and Pratihara ruler Nagabatta
Why was the Great Magna Carta signed by King John?
- The nobles in England forced King John II to sign a Charter of Liberty in 1215 A.D. It is Magna Carta or the Great Charter.
- This Charter contained a promise that the king would respect certain liberties of the nobles and the people of England.
- The theory of the supremacy of the ruler which prevailed in the Holy Roman Empire was not accepted in England.
- King John of England was a contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish in India.
VII. Answer the following in detail:
Write a note on the following:
(a) Persian wheel
(b) Fatehpur Sikri
(c) Darasuram Temple
(a) Persian wheel:
- The Persian wheel is a mechanical water lifting device.
- It is usually operated by draught animals like bullocks, buffaloes or camels.
- It is used to lift water from water sources typically open wells.
- Since it was used in Persia got the name Persian wheel.
(b) Fatehpur Sikri:
- Fatehpur Sikri is a town in the Agra District in Uttar Pradesh.
- The city was founded as the Capital of Mughal empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar.
- Fatehpur Sikri means the city of victory.
- The Buland Darwaza was built in honour of his success
- The city was built massively and preferably with red sandstone.
- The city’s architecture reflects both the Hindu and Muslim form of domestic architecture popular in India at that time. Buland Darwaza, Jama masjid, Tomb of Salim Chirti, Panch Mahal, Naubat-khana, Birbal’s House, Hiran Minar and other buildings are seen here.
(c) Darasuram Temple:
- Darasuram is a panchayat town, located 3 kilometers from Kumbakonam in Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu.
- The town is known for the Airavateswara temple constructed by Raja Raja Chola II in the 12th century A.D.
- The temple is recognised UNESCO World Heritage Monument.
- Darasuram temple is a storehouse of art and architecture.
- The vimana is 85 feet high.
- With heavily ornamented pillars accurate in detail and richly sculpted walls, the Airavateswara at Darasuram is a classic example of Chola art and architecture.
- There are group of monuments in Hampi.
- It is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in east-central Karnataka
- It became the centre of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire capital in the 14th century.
- Located in Karnataka near the modem – era city of Hosapete, Hampi’s rains are spread over 4,100 hectares.
- Hampi continues to be an important religious centre, housing the Virupaksha temple, an active Adhi Sankara linked monastery and various monuments belonging to the old city.