Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Guide Pdf History Chapter 4 Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.
Tamilnadu Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Solutions History Chapter 4 Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes Text Book Back Questions and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer
Identify the founder of a new sect who exemplified simplicity and self-denial.
The Magadha king influenced by the teachings of Mahavira
Northern India extended from the Kabul Valley in the north to the Godavari in the south witnessed the rise of Sixteen States.
Tri-Ratna are the three principles taught by
The account which throws light on Mauryan polity and society
(a) Marco Polo
(i) Under the Magadha king the mahamatriyas functioned as secretaries to the ministers.
(ii) Accounts of Megasthanes titled Indica is a useful record about Mauryan polity and society.
(iii) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka who founded the Mauryan kingdom.
(iv) According to tradition, towards the end of his life Chandragupta become an ardent follower of Buddhism.
(a) (i) is correct (b) (ii) is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct
(d) (iii) and (iv) is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) is correct
II. Fill in the blanks
- ________ is a collection of the sacred literature of different epochs, containing prayers, confessions, and myths.
- In the Gangetic plain________ agriculture required the use of bf bullocks.
- Jains believe that __________ came in a long line of Tirthankaras and he was the twenty-fourth and the last.
- The place where Buddha attained enlightenment has been built into the Mahabodhi temple that still exists in _______
- The rock edicts from the reliable source to know about the Mauryan empire in particular the Dharmic rule of ___________
- zend avesta
- iron plough
III. Find out the correct statement.
(a) The introduction of Bronze tools made easy the removal of dense forest cover from the banks of the Ganges.
(b) Ajivikas had a small presence in western India.
(c) The clusters where particular clansmen were dominant came to be known were Pre-Mauryan states.
(d) Of the kingdoms mentioned in the literature of the period Kashi, Kosala and Magadha are considered to be powerful.
(a) Wrong. The introduction of Iron tools made easy the removal of dense forest cover from the banks of the Ganges.
(b) Wrong. Ajivikas had a small presence in Southern India.
(c) Wrong. The clusters where particular clansmen were dominant came to know as Janapadas.
(a) Ajatashatru was the first important king of Magadha.
(b) Bimbisara succeeded in establishing a comprehensive structure of administration.
(c)The Mauryas were the first of non-Kshatriya dynasties to rule in northern India.
(d) Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Ashoka.
(a) Wrong. Bimbisara was the first important king of Magadha.
(c) Wrong. The Nandas were the first of Non-Kshatriya dynasties to rule in northern India.
(d) wrong. Nanda’s attempt to build an imperial structure was cut short by Chandra Gupta Maurya.
IV. Match the following
- Eight-fold path – (i) tallest Jaina statue
- Bahubali – (ii) a code of political morality
- The Spring and Autumn Annals – (iii) sacred literature of law and myths
- Zend Avesta – (iv) first Tirthankara
- Rishabha – (v) path to attain the purest state of mind
- – v
- – i
- – ii
- – iii
- – iv
V. Answer the following briefly.
Write above Hinayana and Mahayana.
- The Hinayana was the original creed preached by Buddha.
- The followers of this form regarded Buddha as their guru and did not worship him as God.
- They denied idol worship and continued with the people’s language, Pali.
- In Mahayana, Buddha was worshipped as God and Bodhisattuva as his previous avatar.
- The followers made images and statues of Buddha and Bodhisattva and offered prayers, and recited hymns (mantras) in their praise.
- Later, they wrote their religious books in Sanskrit. This form of Buddhism was patronised
Elaborate on the term “Tri-ratnas”.
The three principles of Jainism also known as Tri-Ratna are the following.
- Right faith: Belief in the teachings and wisdom of Mahavira.
- Right knowledge: Acceptance of the theory that there is no God and that the world existed without a creator.
- Right Action: It refers to the Mahavira’s observance of the five great vows.
- truthfulness and
- not coveting (or) desiring things belonging to others.
What do you know of Ajatasatru?
- Ajatashatrii, the son of Bimbisara is said to have murdered his father and ascended the throne in 493 BCE.
- He continued his father’s policy of expansion through military conquests.
- He strengthened the Rajagriha fort and also built another fort at Pataligrama on the Ganges.
- He died in 461 BCE.
What does the Edict of Kalinga convey?
- There are 33 edicts, including 14 major rock edicts, 7 pillar edicts, and 2 Kalinga edicts apart from minor rock edicts and minor pillar inscriptions.
- They form reliable sources to know about the Mauryan Empire in particular the dharmic rule of Asoka.
- In one of the Kalinga edicts, he tells us his horror and sorrow over the deaths which the war and conquest caused.
- Yet in another edict, he makes it known that Ashoka would not tolerate any longer the death or captivity of even a hundredth or thousandth part of the number killed and made captive in Kalinga.
Highlight the steps taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism.
- Ashoka became an ardent Buddhist after meeting the Buddhist monk Upagupta and propounded his Dharma.
- Ashoka’s passion for protecting life extended to animals as well.
- Hospitals were constructed for them and animal sacrifice was forbidden.
- Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and his daughter Sangamithra, to Ceylon to spread his message of Dharma there.
- Our National emblem with four lions is a replica of the Ashoka pillar of Saranath.
VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption
(a) Who was the founder?
(b) Name the God he proclaimed
(c) What did Zoroaster teach?
(d) What was the highest form of worship?
(a) Zoroaster of Persia was the founder.
(b) He proclaimed there is one God, Ahura Mazda (The Lord of Light).
(c) Zoroaster taught that the great object of religion, state, or society is the cultivation of morality. The highest religious conception is a purity of thought, word, and deed.
(d) Fire was worshipped as a symbol of the deity and considered the highest form of worship.
(a) What was the original name of Buddha?
(b) Name the birthplace of Buddha.
(c) Where did he get enlightenment?
(d) Mention the place of his first sermon
(a) His original name was Siddhartha.
(b) He was bom in 567 BCE in Lumbini Garden near Kapilavastu.
(c) He attained enlightenment in Mahabodhi temple under a peepal tree in Bodhgaya (Bihar)
(d) He went to Varanasi and gave his first sermon at Saranath.
VII. Answer the following in detail
Discuss the five cardinal principles of Confucius
Five Cardinal principles of Confucius.
- Confucius said that wisdom grows from the family and that the foundation of society is the disciplined individual in an orderly family.
- The superior man is not merely intelligent or scholarly, but his characters should be exemplary
- The superior man possesses three virtues, intelligence, coinage, and goodwill.
- Though Confucius insisted on children obeying parents, he clearly proposed that any wrong command should be resisted immediately.
- According to him, a good government should have a sufficiency of food, the sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the people in their ruler.
- The philosophy of Confucius gave the Chinese people aware of their political rights.
- It also clearly listed the government’s duty towards the people
Compare and contrast the principles of Jainism and Buddhism
(a) Similarities between Jainism and Buddhism.
- Both appeared as revolts against orthodox Brahminical Hinduism.
- Both Buddhism and Jainism originated in Eastern India.
- The Jains and the Buddhists equally believe that the world is fall of misery. The object is to deliver the soul from the miseries of the world by eliminating rebirth.
- Both Mahavira and Buddha rejected the authority of the Vedas.
- Both denied the existence of God and upheld ascetic life, moral and ethical codes.
- Both upheld non-violence as a means of salvation.
- Both dismissed the caste system.
- Their followers were mainly from the mercantile class.
(b) Differences between Jainism and Buddhism.
- Jainism was an ancient creed which existed before the advent of Mahavira. There were atleast 23 Tirthankaras before Mahavira. But Buddhism was entirely a new creed. It had no existence before Buddha.
- The Jains ascribe life to plants, stone, and water, which the Buddhism reject.
- The Jains practice rigorous asceticism and self-mortification. But Buddha was opposed to extreme penance and advised a middle path.
- Discarding the garments was advised by Mahavira, whereas Buddha renounced that.
- Ahimsa in extreme form was followed by the Jains whereas Buddhists believe in Ahimsa.
- Great missionary zeal was followed by the Buddhists compared to the Jains.
- While Buddhism has practically vanished from India, Jainism is still a strong living faith having influence upon millions of Indians.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Intellectual Awakening and Socio-Political Changes Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Choose the Best Answer:
The second phase in the history of civilization began when ___________ was discovered
According to Confucius wisdom grows from the ___________
Ahura Mazda means Lord of ___________
Mahavira was born in Kundagrama near ___________
Sakya Muni’ referred to _______
The founder of Ajivika was ___________
Gosala was a friend of ___________
Bimbisara was the first important king of ___________
The founder of the Mauryan kingdom was ___________
Chanakya wrote. ___________
(i) Ajatashatru was the son of Bindusara.
(ii) Linguistic and cultural commonality prevailed in the Mahajanapads. Whereas in the Janapads different social and cultural groups lived.
(iii) The 6th century BCE witnessed the establishment of kingdoms, oligarchies, and chiefdoms.
(iv) The Gana-Sanghas had only two strata. The Kshatriya Rajakula and dasaakarmakara.
(a) (i) and (ii) is correct
(b) (iii) and (iv) is correct
(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) is correct
(d) (i) and (iv) is correct
(b) (iii) and (iv) is correct
II. Fill in the Blanks:
- Zoroastrianism, one of the oldest of the world religions started in _____
- Confucius was bom in _____province of China.
- The Book of changes deals with _____
- Taoism was started by _____
- Mahavira was bom at _____near Vaishali.
- Mahavira means a _____
- The statue of Babubali is known as _____
- The Pallava king was a Jain _____
- The Digambaras were the _____followers of Mahavira.
- Buddha, in order to carry his message to different parts of India, established the _______
- Ajivikas rejected the – theory.
- Gana Sanghas provided a polity alternative to the _____
- The first important king of Magadha was ______
- Seleucus was the general of ______
- Bindusara extended the Mauryan Empire upto _____
- Indica was written by ________
- Ashoka became an ardent Buddhist after meeting the Buddhist monk ______
- Ashoka sent his son and daughter to to spread his message _____
- Magadha Empire built a great monastry at _____
- Mauryans had a for Urban administration _____
- Lao Tse
- Great Hero
- Mahendra Varma
- Buddhist Sanga/Holy order of monks
III. Find out the Correct Statement:
(a) Buddhism and Jainism took root as a major religions in India.
(b) The copper axe enabled cultivators to clear the jungle.
(c) 8th century BCE was a period of exceptional development in all spheres of life.
(d) Confucius belonged to Persia.
(b) Wrong. The Iron axe enabled the cultivators to clear the jungle.
(c) Wrong. 6th century BCE was a period of exceptional development in all spheres of life.
(d) Wrong. Confucius belonged to China.
(a) The Book of History explains a code of political morality.
(b) The Book of Odes deals with Metaphysics.
(c) The Book of Records illustrates the sound principles of morality in songs.
(d) Kong Fu Tse refers to Confucius.
(a) Wrong. The Book of History narrates the events and legends of the early religions of China.
(b) Wrong. The Book of Odes illustrates the sound principles of morality in songs.
(c) Wrong. The Book of Records is chiefly ethical, providing guidelines for the regulation of human society.
(a) The doctrines and rituals of Zoroastrianism have many similarities to those of Buddhism.
(b) The language of Avesta bears similarity to that of the Dravidian.
(c) Ahura Mazda has seven qualities.
(d) According to Zoroastrianism human virtues meant only prayer, meditation, sacrifices, and rituals.
(a) Wrong. The doctrines and rituals of Zoroastrianism have much similarity to those of the Vedas.
(b) Wrong. The language of Avesta bears similarity to that of the Indo-Aryan.
(d) Wrong. According to Zoroastrianism human virtues did not mean only prayer, meditation, sacrifices, and rituals. It meant much more such as fighting evil, making efforts for good, and assisting the activity of Ahura Mazda.
(a) In the Gangetic Valley, people produced a very limited amount of Crops.
(b) Mahavira and Buddha lived in the times of Bimbisara and Ajatashatru.
(c) Mahavira was born in Kapitavastu.
(d) The statue of Babubali is located at the Southern tip of Tamil Nadu.
(a) Wrong. In the Gangetic valley, people learnt to produce crops more than that was required for subsistence.
(c) Wrong. Mahavira was bom at Kundagrama near Vaishali.
(d) Wrong. The statue of Babubali (Known as Gomateswara) is located at Shravana belgola in Karnataka.
(a) In course of his wanderings, Siddharta sat under the neem tree for a day and got enlightenment.
(b) Buddha preached in the kingdoms of Kasi and Raj agriha.
(c) Buddha preached that he who renounces the world can attain the highest and purest state of mind.
(d) The Bhikshus and the Bhikshumis spread the fourth of Buddha.
(a) Wrong. In the course of his wandering, Siddharta sat under a peepal tree for several days until he attained enlightenment.
(b) Wrong. Buddha preached in the kingdoms of Magadha and Kosala.
(c) Wrong. Buddha preached that he who practices the eight fold path can attain the highest and purest state of mind.
(a) Buddhism lost its royal patronage during the reign of Mauryans.
(b) In Hinayana, Buddha was worshipped as God.
(c) Ajivika’s founder was Gosala who was a friend of Confucius.
(d) The Rig Vedic title of Rajan was replaced by the impressive term ‘Arasan’.
(a) Wrong. Buddhism lost its royal patronage during the reign of Guptas.
(b)Wrong. In Mahayana, Buddha was worshipped as God.
(c) Ajivika’s founder Gosala was a friend of Mahavira.
(d) The Rig Vedic Title of ‘Rajan’ was replaced by impressive titles such as Samrat, Ekrat, Virat or Bhoja.
IV. Match the Following
(a) Confucius – (i) Indian
(b) Zoaraster – (ii) Roman
(c) Buddha – (iii) Taoism
(d) Lao Tse – (iv) Persia
(e) Manichaeism – (v) China
(a) – v
(b) – vi
(c) – i
(d) – iii
(e) – iv
(a) Bhugadugha – (i) Carpenter
(b) Paligola – (ii) Chaplain
(c) Takshan – (iii) Leader of the village
(d) Purohita – (iv) Collector of taxes
(e) Gramani – (v) Court
_______ – (vi) Courtier
(a) – iv
(b) – vi
(c) – i
(d) – ii
(e) – iii
(a) Achaeminid Empire – (i) Alexander
(b) Takshashila – (ii) Chanakya
(c) Macedonia – (iii) Cyrus II
(d) Jhelum – (iv) Seleucus
(e) Vishnugupta – (v) Poms
________ – (vi) Taxila
(a) – iii
(b) – vi
(c) – i
(d) – v
(e) – ii
V. Answer the following questions briefly:
How did Confucianism and Taoism develop?
- In the sixth century BCE, the two great thinkers Confucious and Lao-Tse were bom in China.
- They laid down systems of morals and social behaviour for individuals and communities.
- The philosophy they taught was developed into a religion known as Confucianism and Taoism respectively.
- Their books were held in great reverence in china. After their death, temples were built in their memory.
- Confucianism had a big influence on not only the political class of China but also on the common people.
Write a note on Lao Tse.
- Lao Tse was the greatest of the pre-Confucian philosophers.
- He was 53 years older than Confucius, born in 604 BCE.
- He was disgusted with the intrigues of politicians and with the corruption of the time. He left China to live in a peaceful abode.
- He wrote a book in two parts, running into five thousand words.
- He then disappeared from the place and no one knew where he died.
- His book Tao-Teh-Ching became a guide to the conduct of life.
Explain the Pinyin system of transliteration.
- Linguists developed a system called Pinyin, meaning spelled sounds, for pronouncing and
spelling Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet.
- According to the new Pinyin system of transliteration, the correct way of writing Confucius is Kong Fu-Tse.
- The European scholars who visited China found it difficult to pronounce the name and so they turned it into Latin and called him Confucius
What is meant by Zend Avesta?
- The holy book of Zoroastrianism is Zend Avesta. The language Of Avesta bears similarity to that of the Indo-Aryan.
- The Zend Avesta is a collection of the sacred literature of different epochs, containing religious hymns, invocations, prayers, confessions, laws, myths, and sacred reminiscences.
- The doctrines and ceremonials of the Zoarastrians have a similarity to those of the Vedas.
Mention the seven qualities asserted by Ahura Mazda.
(i) Zoaraster asserted that Ahura Mazda has seven qualities.
(ii) They are
(iii) Ahura Mazda is Omniscient (knows everything), Omnipotent (all powerful), and Omnipresent (is everywhere)
(iv) In Zoarastrianism sacrifice and image worship were discarded and worship of fire as a symbol of the deity was considered the highest form of worship.
Name the significant commercial centres of the Gangetic Plain.
- In the Gangetic valley people learned to produce crops more than required for subsistence,
- Vaishali, Shravasti, Raj agriha, Kaushambi and Kashi were some significant commercial centres of the Gangetic plain.
What was the teaching of Mahavira?
- The three principles of Jainism were known as Tri-Ratnas. They were:
- Right faith – belief in the teachings of and wisdom of Mahavira.
- Right knowledge – acceptance of the theory that there is no God and that the world existed without a creator.
- Right action – It refers Mahavira’s observance of the five great vows such as
- Not coveting or desiring things belonging to others.
Explain the terms
- In course of time, Jainism split into two branches, namely the Digambaras and the Svetambaras.
- Digambaras (Sky-clad) were the orthodox followers of Mahavira and adhered to Mahavira’s principles.
- Svetambaras (white-clad) – They wore a white dress from head to toe.
- The lack of royal patronage, its severity, factionalism, and spread of Buddhism paved the way for the decline of Jainism.
Why did Siddhartha renounce the world?
- When Siddartha came across an old man abandoned by his relatives, a sick man crying with pain, a dead man surrounded by weeping relative he was deeply moved.
- He also saw an ascetic who had renounced the world and found no signs of sorrows.
- These ‘Four Great Sights’ prompted him to renounce the world.
- At the age of 30, he went into the forest in search of truth. He sat under a peepal tree for several days until he attained enlightenment.
- The place where he attained enlightenment ‘Mahabodhi Temple’ still exists in Bodh Gaya (Bihar).
How did Buddha impart the knowledge after his enlightenment?
- After his enlightenment, Buddha decided to impart this knowledge to the people.
- He went to Varanasi and gave his first sermon at Saranath.
- He preached in the kingdoms of Magadha and Kosala.
- A large number of people became his followers including his own.
- After 45 years of preaching, he breathed his last in 487 BCE at Kushinagar (near Gorakpur in U.R) at the age of 80.
Why were the Sanghas established?
- Buddha in order to carry his messages to different parts of India established the Buddhist Sangham or the Holy order of monks.
- The Bhikshus (monks) and the Bhikshunis (nuns) were employed in spreading the faith.
- They had to lead a life of purity and poverty.
- Buddhism spread to Central Asia, Sri Lanka, Tibet, South East Asia, as well as the eastern countries of China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
Bring out the impact of Buddhism on Modern India.
- Buddha vehemently opposed the caste system in Indian society.
- In modem India Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Ambedkar were greatly influenced by his teachings.
- In the later nineteenth century, there was a Buddhist revival in South India under the influence of the Theosophical society.
- Ayotheethass Pandithar, championed the revival of Buddhism in Tamil Nadu.
Who were Ajivikas?
- The period which produced Buddhism and Jainism also witnessed the birth of a sect known as Ajivikas.
- Its founder was Gosala.
- An atheistic sect, Ajivikas rejected the Karma theory.
- Ajivikas had a small presence in Southern India.
- Under the Cholas, a special tax was levied on them.
Where do we find the outlines of Ajivika doctrine?
Three Tamil texts, the Manimakalai of Buddhists, the Nilakesi of Jains and the Sivajnanasiddhiyar of Saivites contain outlines of the Ajivika doctrine.
Name the Mahajanapadas.
- The sixth century BCE witnessed the establishment of kingdoms, Oligarchies, Chiefdoms as well as the emergence of towns.
- Sixteen kingdoms or Oligarchic republics are listed in Buddhist texts.
- Linguistic and cultural commonality prevailed in the Janapadas, whereas in the Mahajanapadas different social and cultural groups lived.
- Northern India extended from the Kabul Valley in the north and the Godavari in the South. It witnessed the rise of sixteen states known as Mahajanapadas or sixteen great states.
- They were Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kura, Panchala, Matsya, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja.
Who was Ajatashatru?
- Ajatshatru was the son of Bimbisara. It is said that he killed his father to ascend the throne in 493 BCE.
- The capital city of Magadha was Raj agriha. While strengthening the fort here, he also built another fort at Pataligrama on the Ganges. It later became the Mauryan Captial of Pataliputra.
- He died in 461 BCE.
How did the reign of the Mauryan dynasty begin?
- Chandra Gupta inspired by Alexander raised an army and waited for an opportunity to establish a kingdom of his own.
- After the death of Alexander, he drove away from the Greek Garrison and defeated the Nanda king in 321 BCE.
- Thus began the reign of Mauryan dynasty.
- Chandragupta defeted Seleucus, Alexander’s general. Seleucus’ envoy Megasthanes is said to have remained in India. Megasthanes wrote the book Indica which is useful to know about Mauryan polity and society.
Write a note on Saranath Pillar.
- In Saranath, near Banaras, there is a beautiful Ashoka Pillar with the four lions on the top.
- It is now adorning our national flag.
Mention the importance of the 3rd Buddhist Sangha.
- The third Buddhist Sangha was held in the Mauryan capital city of Pataliputra in 250 BCE.
- An important outcome of this meet was the decision to spread Buddhism in other parts and to send missions to convert people to Buddhism.
VI. Answer all the questions given under each caption.
Split in Jainism.
(a) Mention the two branches of Jainism.
(b) Explain these two branches
(c) Why did Jainism decline?
(d) Mention the significance of Jaina Kanchi.
(a) Jainism split into two branches, namely the Digambaras (sky-clad) and Svetambaras (White clad)
(b) The Digambaras were the orthodox followers of Mahavira. The Digambaras rejected clothes altogether. Svetambaras wore a white dress from head to toe.
(c) The lack of royal patronage, its severity, factionalism, and the spread of Buddhism led to the decline of Jainism in India.
(d) Close to the present town of Kanchi then is a placed called Jaina Kanchi where we find many Jain temples. One of the important temples is the Thiruparuthi Kundram temple where the ceiling is painted with the life story of Mahavira.
(a) What did the ‘Four Great Sights’ prompt Siddharta to do?
(b) What did Siddharta do in 537 BCE?
(c) Where did he get enlightenment?
(d) After enlightenment what was decided by Buddha?
(a) The ‘Four Great Sights” prompted Siddharta to renounce the world and search for the cause of suffering.
(b) In 537 BCE, he left his palace and went into the forests in search of the truth.
(c) In the course of his wanderings, he sat under a peepal tree for several days until he attained enlightenment. The places where he attained enlightenment the Mahabodhi temple, which still exists in Bodhgaya (Bihar).
(d) After his enlightenment, Buddha decided to impart his knowledge to the people. He went to Varanasi and gave his first Sermon at Saranath.
The split in Buddhism
(a) Who initiated reforms in the way Buddhism was being followed?
(b) What was the result?
(c) What is the lesser vehicle?
(d) What is a Greater vehicle?
(a) During the reign of Kanishka, the Buddhist monk Nagarjuna initiated reforms in the way
(b) As a result, Buddhism was split into two as Hinayana and Mahayana
(C) Lesser vehicle means Hinayana was the original creed preached by Buddha. The followers of this form regarded Buddha as their Guru and did not worship him as God. They denied idol worship and continued with the people’s language Pali.
(d) In the Great vehicle or Mahayana, Buddha was worshipped as God and Bodhisathuva as his previous Avatar. The followers made images and statues of Buddha and Bodhisattuva.
The Rise of Magadha Kingdom.
(a) Where was political power concentrated?
(b) Mention the advisory bodies
(c) Mention the powerful kingdoms of this period.
(d) How did Bimbisara gain access to the Ganges delta?
(a) Political power was concentrated in the ruling family which had become a dynasty with succession becoming hereditary.
(b) There were advisory bodies such as Parishad (ministers) and Sabha (advisory council). The Sabha collected the revenue and remitted it to the treasury.
(c) Kashi, Kosala, and Magadha were the powerful Kingdoms of this period. The only republic that rivalled there kingdoms was Vrijis whose capital was Vaishali.
(d) Through matrimonial alliances with the high-status Lichchavi clan of Vaishali and the ruling family in Kosala, Bimbisara went on to conquer Anga (in West Bengal now) thereby gaining access to the Ganges delta.
Chandra Gupta Maurya.
(a) How did Chandra Gupta Maurya begin the reign of the Mauryan dynasty?
(b) What happened to Seleucus?
(c) Which places surrendered to Chandragupta Maurya without any resistance?
(d) What information do we get from Jaina tradition about Chandragupta Maurya?
(a) Chandragupta was raising an army and looking for opportunities to establish a kingdom of his own. He and his allies marched to Pataliputra and defeated the Nanda king in 321 BCE. Thus began the reign of the Mauryan dynasty.
(b) During Chandragupta’s reign Seleucus was defeated when he crossed the Indus. Seleucus envoy, Megasthanes remained in India.
(c) The area comprising present-day Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Makran surrendered without any resistance.
(d) According to Jaina tradition, Chandragupta, towards the end of his life, who had now become an ardent follower of Jainism, abdicated the throne in favour of his son Bindusara.
(a) Where was education imparted?
(b) Who built the Nalanda monastery?
(c) What was offered by the Educational centres?
(d) Write a note on Nalanda.
(a) Monasteries and temples served the purpose of imparting education.
(b) Nalanda was a great monastery built by the Magadha Empire.
(c) The Educational centres offered Buddhist and Vedic Literature, logic, grammar, medicine,
philosophy and astronomy.
(d) Nalanda became the most renowned seat of learning in course of time. It was supported by the revenues of 100 villages. No fees were charged to the students and they were provided free, board and lodging.
VII. Answer the following in detail.
Mention the significance of Hinayana and Mahayana.
- A reformation took place in the way of following Buddhism in the 2nd century BC brought out by a Buddhist monk Nagarjuna during the reign of Kanishka.
- Buddhism was split into two as Hinayana and Mahayana.
- The Hinayana (lesser vehicle) was the original creed preached by Buddha.
- Followers of this form regarded Buddha as their Guru and did not worship him as God. They denied idol worship and continued with people’s language Pali.
- In Mahayana (Greater Vehicle) Buddha was worshipped as God and Bodisatuva as his previous avatar.
- The followers made images and statues of Buddha and Bodisathuva and offered prayers, recited hymns (mantras) in their praise.
- Later they wrote their religion’s books in Sanskrit. This form of Buddhism was patronised by Kanishka.
How were Janapadai formed?
- The spread of the Aryans in the east led to the establishment of now settlements in the Gangetic region.
- One important result of the introduction of iron tools was the easy removal of dense forest cover from the banks of the Ganges.
- Sedentary agriculture there resulted in permanent settlement of a clan in a particular area and thereby giving it a geographical identity.
- Retaining their acquired land required political organisation.
- The emergence of gana-sangha, chiefdom, could be seen in.
- The clusters where particular clansmen were dominant came to be known as Janapadas.
Analyse the causes for the decline of Buddhism.
- Buddhism was popular in the beginning because it was preached in a simple language (Pali and Prakrit)
- Later texts were written in Sanskrit which was difficult for the common people to understand.
- The split on Buddhism as Hinayana and Mahayana was another vital reason.
- Image worship in Mahayana made no difference between Hinduism and Buddhism.
- Buddhism lost its royal patronage during Guptas.
- The Gupta kings being the followers of the Vedic religion patronised Hindu deities and built shrines only for them.
- The Huns invasion jolted Buddhism.
- Huns leaders like Toramana and Mihirakula did not have any belief in non-violence.
- So they eliminated the Buddhists residing in the North-Western parts of India.
- Further, the invasions of Turks, which became regular after Mahmud of Ghazni almost wiped out Buddhism.