Tamilnadu State Board New Syllabus Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Guide Pdf Chapter 18 Organization of Tissues Text Book Back Questions and Answers, Notes.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 18 Organization of Tissues
9th Science Guide Organization of Tissues Text Book Back Questions and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer:
The tissue composed of living thin walled polyhedral cell is
(d) none of above
(d) none of above
The fibres consists of
(d) none of above
Companion cells are closely associated with
(a) sieve elements
(b) vessel elements
(d) guard cells
(a) sieve elements
Which of the following is a complex tissue?
Aerenchyma is found in
Smooth muscles occur in
(d) all of the above
(d) all of the above
Nerve cell does not contains
(b) nerve endings
II. Match the following.
III Fill in the blanks :
1. ……………. tissues provide mechanical support to organs.
2. Parenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma are ……………. type of tissue.
3. ……………. and ……………… are complex issues.
4. Epithelial cells with cilia are fóund in ……………….. of our body
trachea or windpipe
5. Lining of the small intestine is made up of …………………..
IV. State whether true or false. If false, correct the statement :
1. Epithelial tissue is protective tissue in an animal body.
2. Bone and cartilage are two types of areolar connective tissue.
Correct statement: Bone and cartilage are two types of supportive connective tissue.
3. Parenchyma is a simple tissue.
4. Phloem is made up of tracheids.
Correct statement: Phloem is made up of sieve tubes.
5. Vessels are found in collenchyma.
Correct statement: Vessels are found in the xylem.
V. Answer briefly :
What are intercalary meristems? How do they differ from other meristems?
Intercalary meristem lies between the region of permanent tissues and is part of primary meristem which is detached due to formation of intermittent permanent tissues. It is found either at the base of leaf e.g. Pinus or at the base of intemodes e.g. grasses.
What is complex tissue? Name the various kinds of complex tissues.
- Complex tissues are made of more than one type of cells that work together as a unit.
- Complex tissues consist of parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells. However, collenchymatous cells are not present in such tissues.
- Common examples are xylem and phloem.
Mention the most abundant muscular tissue found in our body. State its function.
Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue. It provides a structural framework and gives support to different tissues forming organs.
What is skeletal connective tissue? How is it helpful in the functioning of our body?
The supporting or skeletal connective tissues forms the endoskeleton of the vertebrate body. They protect various organs and help in locomotion. The supportive tissues include cartilage and bone.
Why should gametes be produced by meiosis during sexual reproduction?
Meiosis is important as it produces gametes i.e., male or female germ cells. During meiosis, a germ cell or gamete divides to make four new sex cells. As a result of fertilization two gamates join together to form an egg or zygote. Therefore only if gametes are produced, fertilization can take place.
In which stage of mitosis the chromosomes align in an equatorial plate? How?
Metaphase (meta – after) The duplicated chromosomes arrange on the equatorial plane and form the metaphase plate. Each chromosome gets attached to a spindle fibre by its centromere. The centromere of each chromosome divides into two each being associated with a chromatid.
VI. Answer in detail:
What are the permanent tissues? Describe the different types of simple permanent tissues.
Permanent tissues are those in which, growth has stopped either completely or for the time being. At times, they become meristematic partially or wholly.
Different types of simple permanent tissue :
Simple tissue: Simple tissue is homogeneous-composed of structurally and functionally similar cells. Eg : Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
- Parenchyma are simple permanent tissue composed of living cells.
- Parenchyma cells are thin-walled, oval, rounded, or polygonal in shape with well-developed spaces among them.
- In aquatic plants, parenchyma possesses intercellular air spaces and is named as aerenchyma.
- When exposed to light, parenchyma cells may develop chloroplasts and are known as chlorenchyma.
- Parenchyma may store water in many succulent and xerophytic plants.
- It also serves the functions of storage of food reserves, absorption, buoyancy, secretion, etc
- Collenchyma is a living tissue found beneath the epidermis.
- Cells are elongated with unevenly thickened non-lignified walls. Cells have rectangular oblique or tapering ends and persistent protoplast.
- They possess thick primary non-lignified walls.
Functions: They provide mechanical support for growing organs.
- Scierenchyma consists of thick-walled cells which are often lignified.
- Scierenchyma cells do not possess living protoplasts at maturity. Scierenchyma cells are grouped into
(i) fibers and (ii) sclereids.
Fibres : Elongated scierenchymatous cells, usually with pointed ends. Their walls are lignified. Fibres are abundantly found in many plants. Eg. Jute.
- Sclereids are widely distributed in plant body. They are usually broad, may occur in single or in groups.
- Sclereids are isodiametric, with lignified walls. Pits are prominent and seen along the walls.
- Lumen is filled with wall materials. Sclereids are also common in fruits and seeds.
Write about the elements of Xylem.
Xylem is a conducting tissue which conducts water, mineral nutrients upward from root to leaves. Xylem is also meant for mechanical support to the plant body. Xylem is composed of different kinds of elements. They are
- xylem tracheids
- xylem fibres
- xylem vessels and
- xylem parenchyma.
(i) Xylem tracheids: They are elongated or tube-like dead cells with hard, thick and lignified walls. Their ends are tapering, blunt or chisel-like. These cells are devoid of protoplast. They have large lumen without any content. Their function is conduction of water and providing mechanical support to the plant.
(ii) Xylem fibers: These cells are elongated, lignified and pointed at both the ends. Xylem fibres help in the conduction of water and nutrients from root to the leaf and also provide mechanical support to the plant.
(iii) Xylem vessels: They are long cylindrical, tube-like structures with lignified walls and wide central lumen. These cells are dead as these do not have protoplast. They are arranged in longitudinal series in which the partitioned walls (transverse walls) are perforated, and so the entire structure looks-like a water pipe. Their main function is the transport of water and minerals from root to leaf, and also to provide mechanical strength.
(iv) Xylem parenchyma: Its cells are living and thin-walled. The main function of xylem parenchyma is to store starch and fatty substances.
List out the differences< between mitosis and meipsis.
|1. Occurs in somatic cells.||Occurs in reproductive cells|
|2. Involved in growth and occurs continuously throughout life.||Involved in gamete formation only during the reproductively active age.|
|3. Consists of single division.||Consists of two divisions.|
|4. Two diploid daughter cells are formed.||Four haploid daughter cells are formed.|
|5. The chromosome number in the daughter cell is similar to the parent cell (2n).||The chromosome number in the daughter cell is just half (n) of the parent cell.|
|6. Identical daughter cells are formed.||Daughter cells are not similar to the parent cell and are randomly assorted.|
VII. Higher Order Thinking Skills :
What is the consequence that occurs if all blood platelets are removed from the blood?
Blood platelets play a major role in the clotting of blood whenever there is a wound/injury. If blood platelets are removed from the blood, clotting of blood will not occur. In case of any injury/surgery etc., blood will be lost from the body in excess and may even prove to be fatal.
2. Which are not true cells in the blood? Why?
Red blood cells or erythrocytes cannot be considered as true cells since they have a nucleus only in the early stages. A mature RBC lacks a nucleus which is the controlling centre of all living cells.
ACTIVITY – 1
Rinse your mouth with water. Using a toothpick or ice-cream stick, scrap superficial cells from the inner side of the cheek and spread it on a clean glass slide. Dry the glass slide with the scrap cells taken from the inner side of the cheek. Add two drops of methylene blue stain. Identify the cells under low and high power of the microscope.
1. Large irregularly shaped cells with cell walls.
2. Dark blue nucleus at the central part of each cell.
3. Lightly stained cytoplasm colour in each cell.
9th Science Guide Organization of Tissues Additional Important Questions and Answers
I. Choose the correct answer :
A meristematic tissue consists of
(a) immature cells that are capable of undergoing cell division.
(b) mature cells
(c) non-living cells
(d) sclerenchyma cells
(a) immature cells that are capable of undergoing cell division
Two long bones of the hand are dislocated in a person who met with an accident. Which among the following may be the possible reason?
(a) Tendon injury
(b) Break of skeletal muscle
‘(c) Ligament tear
(d) Rupture of Areolar tissue
(c) Ligament tear
Non-striated muscles are found in
(a) blood vessels
(b) gastric glands
(c) urinary bladder
(d) all of these
(d) all of these
Which of the following is not found in a neuron?
(c) Myelin sheath
Cylindrical, unbranched multinucleated cells are
(a) striated muscle cells
(b) smooth muscles
(c) cardiac muscles
(d) none of the above.
(a) striated muscle cells
The matrix of the bone is rich in
(b) reticular fibres
Which muscles act involuntarily?
(i) Striated muscles
(ii) Smooth muscles
(iii) Cardiac muscles
(iv) Skeletal muscles
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (iii) and (iv)
(d)(i) and (iv)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(a) cartilage with muscles
(b) bone with skeletal muscles
(c) ligament with muscles
(d) bone with bone
(b) bone with skeletal muscles
In a certain type of cell division, the diploid number of chromosomes is reduced to half. This kind of division occurs in
(c) both ovary and testis
(d) all body cells
(c) both ovary and testis
……………… is derived from the ground meristem.
The function of phloem fibres is …………….to the plant body
(a) passage of food
(b) Store food
(c) mechanical strength
(d) preparation of food
(c) mechanical strength
The …………….. epithelium is also known as pavement membrane.
Elastic structures that connect bones to bones are called ………………..
(d) areolar tissue
………………… is seen in unicellular animals.
(d) none of the above
The disappearance of spindle fibres is seen in …………….
The ………………… is a single, long fiber like process that develops from the cyton.
Bouquet stage refers to ……………..
Fill in the blanks :
1. The ……………. tissues are made up of more than one type of cells and these woks together as a unit.
2. The two types of skeletal connective tissues are ……………. and …………….
3. Humans have 46 chromosomes. Their sperms and eggs will have ……………. chromosomes each.
4. During pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, the …………….. chromosomes come to lie side by side.
5. The word meristem is derived from a Greek word ………………
6. Cork cambium is an example of ……………… meristem.
7. The meristem found at the base of intemodes is called ……………….
8. In apple, paranchyma stores ………………
9. Fibres are extensively longer ranging from 20 mm to 550 mm ……………….
corchorus capsularis (jute)
10. During mieosis in pachytene, stages the paired chromosomes are called ………………….
11. Mitosis was discovered by …………………..
12. Both smooth and cardiac muscles are …………….. in nature.
13. ………………. is a non-flexible skeletal connective tissue.
14. ……………. acts as a fat reservoir.
15. …………….. epithelium is seen in sweat glands.
16. Genetic variations occur in meiosis because of …………….
III. State whether True or false. If false, write the correct statement:
1. Epithelial layer does not allow regulation of materials between the body and the external environment.
Correct statement: Epithelium is involved in the absorption and elimination of waste.
2. Striated and non-striated tissues are types of epithelial tissues.
Correct statement: They are types of muscular tissues.
3. Spindle formation occur in amitosis.
Correct statement: Spindle formation occur in mitosis.
4. Movement of food in the alimentary canal is because of cardiac muscles.
Correct statement: Movement of food is alimentary canal by the rhythmic con t no-tom and relaxation of the muscular nails of the alimentary canal.
Correct statement: Movement of food in the alimentary canal.
5. A mature RBC lacks a nucleus.
6. Excessive pulling of bones causes a sprain.
Correct statement: Sprain is caused by excessive pulling of ligaments.
7. Glandular epithelium gives a stratified appearance.
Correct statement: Compound epithelium given a stratified appearance.
8. Sieve cells have no companion cells.
9. Conduction can be bidirectional in phloem tissue.
10. White blood corpuscles contain respiratory pigment hemoglobin.
Correct statement: Red blood corpuscles contain respiratory pigment hemoglobin.
IV. Assertion and Reason type:
Direction: In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion is given and a corresponding statement of Reason is given just below it. Of statements, given below, mark the correct answer as
(a) Both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion.
(b) Both Assertion and Reason are true that Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion.
(c) Assertion is true but Reason is false.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false.
Assertion: Non-striated muscles are said to be voluntary in nature.
Reason: Non-striated muscles are under the control of our will.
(d) Both Assertion and Reason are false
Assertion: Materials are exchanged between epithelial and connective tissues by diffusion.
Reason: Blood vessels are absent in epithelial tissue.
(a) Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion
V. Answer in one or two sentences :
Name the two types of sclerenchyma cells.
Sclerenchyma cells are grouped into
- fibres and
Name the components of xylem and phloem.
Xylem is composed of :
- Xylem tracheids
- Xylem fibres
- Xylem vessels
- Xylem parenchyma
Phloem is composed of:
- Sieve elements
- Companion cells
- Phloem fibres
- Phloem parenchyma
Name the tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans.
Tendons join skeletal muscles to bones in our body.
Name the tissue that stores excess fat in our body.
Name the connective tissue with a fluid matrix.
Blood and lymph
Name the tissue present in the brain.
What is plate meristem?
These cells divide into two planes resulting in an increase in the area of an organ.
Eg: Leaf formation.
Differentiate collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
|It consists of living cells||It consists of dead cells|
|Cells contain protoplasm||Cells do not possess living protoplast|
|Cell walls are non-lignified||Cell walls are lignified|
Mention the type of epithelium seen in alveoli of lungs.,
Name the supportive connective tissues.
Cartilage and bone
Name the cartilage cells present in the matrix.
What is the role of RBC?
RBC contains a respiratory pigment called hemoglobin which is involved in the transport of oxygen to tissues.
Mention the stages of meiotic Prophase -I.
Leptotene, Zygotene, Pachytene, Diplotene, Diakinesis.
What is the significance of Meiosis?
The constant number of chromosomes in a given species is maintained by meiotic division.
Draw a shoot apex and label the meristem’s parts.
VI. Short Answer Type :
How would you differentiate meristematic and permanent tissue?
|Meristematic tissue||Permanent tissue|
|Cytoplasm is dense, and vacuoles are nearly absent.||Usually large central vacuole present in living permanent cells.|
|Intercellular spaces absent.||Intercellular spaces present.|
|Component cells are small, spherical or polygonal and undifferentiated.||Component cells are large, differentiated with different shapes.|
|Cell wall is thin and elastic.||Cell wall is thick.|
|Nucleus is large and prominent.||Nucleus is less conspicuous.|
|Cells grow and divide regularly.||Cells do not normally divide.|
|Provides mechanical support and elasticity to the plant body.||Provides only mechanical support.|
Differentiate fibres from sclereids.
|Usually broad||Elongated narrow thread-like|
|End walls blunt||Usually with pointed ends.|
|Occur singly||Occur in bundles|
|Deep pits||Narrow pits|
Which tissue is the main component of tendons and ligaments? How do they differ in function?
Dense Connective Tissue is a fibrous connective tissue densely packed with fibres and fibroblasts. It is the principal component of tendons and ligaments.
a. Tendons: Cord-like, strong, structures that join skeletal muscles to bones. Tendons have great strength and limited flexibility. They consist of parallel bundles of collagen fibres, between which are present rows of fibroblasts.
b. Ligaments: They are highly elastic structures and have great strength which connects bones to bones. They contain very little matrix. They strengthen the joints and allow normal movement.
What are the fibres present in the connective tissue proper?
Connective tissue proper: Connective tissue proper consists of collagen fibres, elastin fibres and fibroblast cells.
Areolar tissue: It has cells and fibres loosely arranged in a semi-fluid ground substance called matrix. It takes the form of fine threads crossing each other in every direction leaving small spaces called areolae. It joins skin to muscles, fills space inside organs and is found around muscles, blood vessels and nerves. It helps in repair of tissues after injury and fixes skin to underlying muscles.
Adipose Tissue: Adipose tissue is the aggregation of fat cells or adipocytes spherical or oval in shape. It serves as fat reservoir. The matrix consists of collagen fibres, elastin fibres and fibroblast cells.
How are collagen fibres organized in dense connective tissues?
- Dense connective tissue is a fibrous connective tissue densely packed with fibres and fibroblasts. It is the principal component of tendon and ligaments.
- Tendons consist of parallel bundles of collagen fibres, between which are present rows of fibroblasts.
- Ligaments are highly elastic structures and contain very little matrix.
Write one point of difference between
a) Bone and cartilage.
b) Simple and compound epithelial tissue.
|It is solid, rigid, and strong, non-flexible skeletal connective tissue.||It is a soft, semi-rigid, flexible skeletal connective tissue.|
|The matrix of the bone is in the form of concentric rings called lamellae||The matrix is composed of large cartilage cells called chondrocytes|
|Simple epithelium tissue||Çompound epithelium tissue|
|It is composed of a single layer of cells
resting ón a basement membrane.
|It is composed of several layers of cells.
Only the cells of the deepest layer rest
on the basement membrane.
Why is blood considered to be a fluid connective tissue?
- The blood and the lymph are the fluid connective tissues which link different parts of the body. The cells of the connective tissue are loosely spaced and are embedded in an intercellular matrix.
- Blood contains corpuscles which are red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes), and platelets. In this fluid connective tissue, blood cells move in a fluid matrix called plasma. The plasma contains inorganic salts and organic substances. It is a main circulating fluid that helps in the transport of nutrient substances.
Give the sequence of the events occurring during prophase of mitosis.
- During this stage, chromosomes become short and thick and are clearly visible inside the nucleus.
- Centrosome splits into two daughter centrioles and occupies opposite poles of the cell.
- Each centriole is surrounded by aster rays. Spindle fibres appear between the two centrioles.
- The nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear gradually.
Why is meiosis called reductional division and mitosis as equational division?
- In mitosis one parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells, each with a nucleus having the same amount of DNA, same number of chromosomes and genes as the parent cells. It is therefore called an equational division.
- Meiosis is called reduction division because the chromosome number is reduced to haploid (n) from diploid (2n) in the daughter cells.
What is terminalization?
In the stage of diplotene of meiotic prophase I, chiasmata begin to move along the length of the chromosome from the centromere towards the end resulting in terminalization.
What is a tetrad?
The chromosomes are visible as long paired twisted threads. The pairs so formed are called bivalents. Each bivalent now contains four chromatids (tetrad stage) in pachytene of mieotic prophase I. The condition of bivalent containing four chromatids are called tetrad stage.
What is crossing over?
During pachytene of mieotic prophase I, the chromatids break and the broken segments are interchanged between homologous chromosomes. The points of exchange are the chiasmata. This is called .crossing over.
What is bouquet stage?
During leptotene of mieotic prophase I, the chromosomes become uncoiled and assume long thread-like structures and take up a specific orientation inside the nucleus. They form a bouquet stage.
What is zygotene?
It is one of the stages of mieoticphophase I. Two homologous chromosomes approach each other and begin to pair. The pairing of homologous chromosomes is called synapsis.
It is the simplest model of cell division and occurs in unicellular animals, aging cells and in foetal membranes. During amitosis, the nucleus elongates first, and a constriction appears in it which deepens and divides the nucleus into two, followed by this cytoplasm divides resulting in the formation of two daughter cells.
Write the salient features of the compound epithelium.
- It consists of more than one layer of cells and gives a stratified appearance. Hence, they are also known as stratified epithelial cells.
- The main function of this epithelium is to give protection to the underlying tissues against mechanical and chemical stress.
- They also cover the dry surface of the skin, the moist surface of the buccal cavity, and the pharynx.
Write a note the significance of mitosis.
- This equational division results in the production of diploid daughter cells (2n) with equal distribution of genetic material (DNA).
- In multicellular organisms growth, organ development and an increase in body size are accomplished through the process of mitosis.
- Mitosis helps in the repair of damaged and wounded tissues by the renewal of the lost cells.
Draw a neuron and label the parts.
VII. Answer in detail:
What are meristems? Describe the distribution and functions of various types of meristems.
Meristematic tissues are group of immature cells that are capable of undergoing cell division. In plants, the meristem is found in zones where growth can take place. Example: apex of stem, root, leaf primordia, vascular cambium, cork cambium, etc.,
Types of Meristems based on position:
On the basis of their position in the plant, meristems are of three types: Apical meristem, Intercalary meristem, and Lateral meristem.
Apical meristem: These are found at the apices or growing points of root and shoot and bring about an increase in length.
Intercalary meristem: It lies between the region of permanent tissues and is part of the primary meristem. It is found either at the base of leaf e.g. pinus or at the base of internodes e.g. grasses.
Lateral Meristem: These are arranged parallel and causes the thickness of the plant part.
Functions: Meristems are actively dividing tissues of the plant, that are responsible for primary (elongation) and secondary (thickness) growth of the plant.
Give one reason for the following:
a. Blood is fluid connective tissue.
b. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles.
c. Heart muscles are involuntary in nature.
The blood and the lymph are the fluid connective tissues which link different parts of the body. The cells of the connective tissue are loosely spaced and are embedded in an intercellular matrix.
(a) Blood: Blood contains corpuscles which are red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes), and platelets. In this fluid connective tissue, blood cells move in a fluid matrix called plasma. The plasma contains inorganic salts and
organic substances. It is a main circulating fluid that helps in the transport of nutrient substances.
(b) They work under our control and are also known as voluntary muscles. They are not under the control of our will and so are called involuntary muscles.
(c) Cardiac muscle: It is a special contractile tissue present in the heart. The muscle fibers are cylindrical, branched, and uninucleate The branches join to form a network called as itercalated disc which are unique distinguishing features of the
cardiac muscles. The contraction of cardiac muscle is involuntary and rhythmic.
Explain simple epithelium and its types.
Simple Epithelium :
1. It is formed of a single layer of cells. It forms a lining for the body cavities and ducts.
2. Simple epithelium is further divided into the following types.
- Squamous epithelium
- Cuboidal epithelium
- Columnar epithelium
- Ciliated epithelium
- Glandular epithelium
(i) Squamous epithelium :
- It is made up of thin, flat cells with prominent nuclei. These cells have irregular boundaries and bind with neighbouring cells.
- The squamous epithelium is also known as pavement membrane, which forms the delicate lining of the buccal cavity, alveoli of lungs, proximal tubule of kidneys, blood vessels etc.
- It protects the body from mechanical injury, drying and invasion of germs.
(ii) Cuboidal epithelium:
- It is composed of single layer of cubical cells.
- The nucleus is round and lies in the centre.
- This tissue is present in the thyroid vesicles, salivary glands, sweat glands, exocrine pancreas.
- It is also found in the intestine and tubular part of the nephron (kidney tubules) as microvilli that increase the absorptive surface area.
- Their main function is secretion and absorption.
(iii) Columnar epithelium:
- It is composed of a single layer of slender, elongated and pillar like cells.
- Their nuclei are located at the base.
- It is found lining the stomach, gall bladder, bile duct, small intestine, colon, oviducts and forms a mucous membrane. ‘
- They are mainly involved in secretion and absorption.
(iv) Ciliated epithelium :
- Certain columnar cells bear numerous delicate hair like out growths called ilia and are called ciliated epithelium.
- Their function is to move particles or mucus in a specific direction over the epithelium.
- It is seen in the trachea of wind-pipe, bronchioles of respiratory tract, kidney tubules and fallopian tubes of oviducts.
(v) Glandular epithelium :
- Epithelial cells are often modified to form specialized gland cells which secrete chemical substances at the epithelial surface.
- This lines the gastric glands, pancreatic tubules and intestinal glands.
Explain the components of phloem tissue.
Phloem is a complex tissue and consists of the following elements :
(i) Sieve elements
(ii) Companion cells
(iii) Phloem fibres
(iv) Phloem parenchyma
(i) Sieve elements :
- The conducting elements of phloem are collectively called as Sieve elements.
- Sieve tubes are elongated, tube-like slender cells placed end to end. The transverse walls at the ends are perforated and are known as sieve plates.
- The main function of sieve tubes is translocation of food, from leaves to the storage organs of the plants.
(ii) Companion cells : These are elongated cells attached to the lateral wall of the sieve tubes. A companion cell may be equal in length to the accompanying sieve tube element or the mother cell may be divided transversely forming a series of companion cells.
(iii) Phloem parenchyma : The phloem parenchyma are living cells which have cytoplasm and nucleus. Their function is to store food materials.
(iv) Phloem fibers : Sclerenchymatous cells associated with primary and secondary phloem are commonly called phloem fibers. These cells are elongated, lignified and provide mechanical strength to the plant body.
Write a note on blood and its components.
Blood is a fluid connective tissue.
Blood contains corpuscles which are red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leucocytes) and platelets. In this fluid connective tissue, the blood cells move in a fluid matrix called. The plasma contains inorganic salts and organic substances. It is a main circulating fluid that helps in the transport of nutrient substances.
Red blood corpuscles (Erythrocytes):
- The red blood corpuscles are oval shaped, circular, biconcave disc-like and lack nucleus when mature (mammalian RBC).
- They contain a respiratory pigment called haemoglobin which is involved in the transport of oxygen to tissues.
White blood corpuscles (Leucocytes): They are larger in size, contain distinct nucleus and are colourless. They are capable of amoeboid movement and play an important ‘ role in body’s defense mechanism. WBC’s are of two types :
(i) Granulocytes have irregular shaped nuclei and cytoplasmic granules. They include the neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Agranulocytes lack cytoplasmic granules and include the lymphocytes and monocytes.
Blood platelets : They are minute, anucleated, fragile fragments of giant bone marrow called mega karyocytes They play an important role in blood clotting mechanism.
VIII. Higher Order Thinking Skills :
Identify the figure given below
(a) Label the parts A, B and C.
(b) What is the chemical composition of the tissue?
(a) T.S. of Bone
(C) Central (Haversian canal)
(b) The matrix of the bone is rich in calcium salts and collagen fibres which gives the bone its strength.
(c) C – Haversian canal
Identify figures A and B.
(a) …………… epithelium forms the outer lining of the buccal cavity.
(b) ………………. epithelium consist of ceils that are tall and pillar-like.
(c) Which one allows diffusion of substances?
(d) Which is called pavement epithelium?
(e) Which epithelium lines the gastrointestinal tract and epiglottis?
Figure A – Squamous Epithelium
Figure B. – Glandular epithelium
(c) Columnar epithelium
(d) Squamous epithelium
(e) Columnar epithelium
If cell (A) has undergone one mitotic division and another cell (B) has completed its meiotic division. The number of cells produced in A and B would be
Cell A: Cell B :
Cell A : 2 daughter cells.
Cell B : 4 daughter cells.
Identify the stage of mitosis from the below picture. List the chromosomal events in this stage.
(i) The centromeres attaching the two chromatids divide and the two daughter chromatids of each chromosome separate and migrate towards the two opposite poles.
(ii) The migration of the daughter chromosomes is achieved by the contraction of spindle fibres.
Identify the following relationship
Cuboidal : Epithelial
Cardiac : ………..
Granulocytes : …………
Osteocytes : ………….
Cardiac : Muscular
Granulocytes : Blood cells
Osteocytes : Bone cells
Umbilical cord blood is collected at the time of child birth and stored in stem cell banks? Reason out.
- Umbilical cord blood consists of stem cells, they are undifferentiated cells which undergo unlimited divisions and give rise to one or more different types of cells. – Embryonic stem cells differentiate into different tissues and organs.
- Stem cells can be used in the treatment of certain degenerative diseases in future.
How do WBC help in defence?
They are capable of amoeboid movement and play an important role. They engulf or destroy foreign bodies.